The organizing principle behind this grouping, appropriate economic units, is relatively simple: if the activities are located in the same geographic area; if the activities have similarities in the types of business; or if the activities are somehow interdependent, for instance, if they have the same customers, employees or use a single set of books for accounting.
Online network marketing. Offline multi-level marketing (or MLM, in brief) is a successful business model, as evidenced by established companies like Amway, Herbalife, or Avon. On the downside, it can also be a scamming tool, as illustrated by the ACN dupe more recently, and plenty of others further back in time. On the legit side of the debate, in the day and age of digital media, this model can be successfully implemented online as well. It requires a powerful presence as a personal brand and key influencer, as well as a solid list of newsletter subscribers. And while the jury is still out on the ultimate efficiency of MLM, it’s worth a shot, if you’re more of a social networking kind of business person.

Typically, the above formula will be applied such that the company is assumed to achieve maturity, or "constant growth". (Note that the value will remain identical: the adjustment is a "telescoping" device). Here, analysts commonly employ the Perpetuity Growth Model to calculate the corresponding terminal value[3] (although various, more formal approaches are also applied[4]). Then, assuming long-run, "constant", growth {\displaystyle g} from year {\displaystyle m} , the terminal value is
It was easier recouping the lost $60,000 in rental-property income than I expected. For so long, my primary mindset for passive income was rental income. Having $815,000 less mortgage debt but still generating roughly the same amount of passive income with a much larger cash balance feels great. Further, my passive-income portfolio got even more passive, which is good as a stay-at-home dad to a newborn.

Residual income is the amount of personal income left after an individual has paid his bills and periodic mortgage payment (expressed on a monthly basis). Residual income is an important consideration for a lender; if a loan applicant shows a large amount of residual income remaining each month, this means the person's current income level is more likely to support the payments associated with an additional loan. Conversely, a minimal amount of residual income is likely to trigger an immediate rejection of a loan application. Residual income tends to increase dramatically later in life, after a person's mortgage has been paid off.

The term “residual income” refers to the income that someone makes after their work has already been completed. An example of residual income is the earnings an author continues to make on a book after it has been published, when fans continue to purchase copies years later. Residual income is ideal because it is money that is being earned while doing nothing in the present moment to earn that money.
To save time and effort, a person can group two or more of their passive activities into one larger activity, provided they form an "appropriate economic unit." When a taxpayer does this, instead of having to provide material participation in multiple activities, they only have to provide it for the activity as a whole. In addition, if a person includes multiple activities into one group and has to dispose of one of those activities, they’ve only done away with part of a larger activity as opposed to all of a smaller one. 
One of the most frequently encountered errors, when it comes to understanding residual income, is mistaking it for passive income. The two terms may seem interchangeable, but they most certainly are not, when it comes to generating income. Aside from the realm of personal finance, which has been addressed above, in business, both these types of income refer to money that you make without having to put in any efforts at present. However, there’s a subtle difference between the two. Subtle as it may be, it’s essential to understand it, before delving into the subtleties of making money online. To get a good grasp of it, check out the two definitions below.
After these tenants move out, I'm thinking of just keeping the rental empty with furniture. It sounds stupid to give up $4,200 a month, but I really hate dealing with the homeowner association, move-in/move-out rules, and maintenance issues. Given that the condo doesn't have a mortgage and I have to pay taxes on some of the rental income, I'm not giving up that much. The condo can be a place for my sister, parents, or in-laws to crash when they want to stay in SF for longer than a week or two.
Passive income is attractive because it frees up your time so you can focus on the things you actually enjoy. If a doctor wants to earn the same amount of money and enjoy the same lifestyle year after year, they must continue to work the same number of hours at the same pay rate—or more, to keep up with inflation. Although such a career can provide a very comfortable lifestyle, it requires far too much sacrifice unless you truly enjoy the daily grind of your chosen profession. Additionally, once you decide to retire, or find yourself unable to work any longer, your income will cease to exist unless you have some form of passive income.
I’ve never invested in real estate (except to live in), but am always intrigued by communities like FS who seem to have such a passion for it. My intrigue stems back to my earlier comments that the long term trends in appreciation in real estate are simply not very competitive versus equities, despite what Robert Kiyosaki had to say in his book, Rich Dad, Poor Dad.

Over the past decade, passive income strategies have made a prominent name for themselves in the investing community. The name says it all: passive income. Once you have conducted the appropriate due diligence, you essentially just need to wait for the checks to start coming in. However, for one reason or another, there are those that are still skeptical of passive income strategies. Whether or not this is ignorance or trepidation, there is only one thing you can do to overcome any reservations you may have: education. The more you learn about passive income, the more inclined you may be to exercise one of its strategies.
Residual income is money that is earned on a recurring basis, typically as the result of a single original action. Rather than earning an hourly wage, residual income is typically generated through an initial investment of time or money with the goal of earning continuous payments. Once the initial investment, product, or service is made, the ongoing income that is earned is generally passive in nature.